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Two-tier Simple Electric Circuits test (2T-SEC test)


The Two-tier Simple Electric Circuits test (2T-SEC test) assesses students’ qualitative understanding of current, resistance and potential differences. The two-tier structure of the assessment allows to analyze students’ alternative conceptions on simple circuits.


The 2T-SEC test is designed to be used in populations that range from middle school to introductory college / university courses.

Typical Performance

No published data yet.

Example question



Ivanjek, L., Morris, L., Schubatzky, T., Hopf, M., Burde, J. P., Haagen-Schützenhöfer, C., … & Wilhelm, T. (2021). Development of a two-tier instrument on simple electric circuits. Physical Review Physics Education Research, 17(2), 020123.


We recommend using Google Scholar to find the most up-to-date studies that use the instrument.

Example LASSO Report

Please follow this link to our example report for concept inventories.